It is reasonable to worry when you notice low water pressure in your home. There are many reasons that can cause low water pressure. Problems as simple as a blocked valve or other more serious such as a blockage of pipes or water leakage can decrease water pressure. There may be more than one cause behind the problem, so it is a good idea to check in different areas. Some causes can be:
Water pressure on taps
Determine whether all areas of your home have low water pressure or just one. Open all taps and showerheads in your home to identify whether there are one or many problem areas. Check the kitchen taps, bathroom, basement, outdoor areas, and hose connections.
Open all taps, hot and cold water. If the water pressure is low only with hot water, it is likely that the problem is being caused by the water heater.
The most common cause of this problem is the shutoff valve of the water heater. Check that the valve is fully open. If the valve is closed, even slightly, this may affect the water pressure. If the problem is not resolved, it could be water pipes or the unit itself. In such case, contact a plumber to fix the problem.
If low water pressure affects a faucet, the problem may be due to a clogged aerator. An aerator is a device that fits onto the end of your faucet mixing pressure and restricts the flow of air into the water. If so:
Try to remove the aerator. Hold the aerator with pliers and rotate. You want to use a cloth around the pliers to avoid slipping to the metal, in addition to protect it from any scratches that can cause. If you cannot remove the aerator with the pliers, is moistened with vinegar. Pour some vinegar in a plastic bag and use a rubber band to tie it to the tap. Let it soak for a few hours, this will loosen any corrosion or debris that might be preventing the aerator is easily loosened.
Examine the aerator for waste or accumulations. You will notice that it has small holes (through which water is forced to pass), and these openings tend to get clogged with mineral deposits and sediment over time. If the aerator needs cleaning, place it in a bowl with vinegar overnight rinse the aerator. If you cannot clean it well, you may want to replace it.
Open water before setting back the aerator. If the water flow is not restored to normal, it is likely that the cause of the problem is downstream. This is a little bit of trouble, but if you want to see if a faucet is plugged up:
Shut off the valves to the sink, disconnect the supply pipes from the shutoff valves to the faucet, point them into a bucket, turn the valves on, and see if a lot of water comes out. If it does, may be the problem is inside of the faucet. If not, it is the supply valve or supply piping that is plugged.
Check the valves
All sinks must have two valves in the feed lines, one for hot water and one for cold water. These valves under the sink should be and are used to close the water supply in case any repairs should do. Make sure the valves are fully open. If they are not, the water pressure will be lower than it should be.
Check the pressure reducer valve or the main shutoff valve.
Look for them just to the house side of your water meter. This is normally out by the street, often in a concrete box just below ground level. Adjust it to check if it affects the overall water pressure. You will find a screw in the valve. To increase the water pressure, adjust it by turning in the direction of clockwise. To decrease the water pressure, loosen the adjusting screw by rotating opposite to the clockwise direction.
Most of the houses and buildings have main shutoff valve. It is near the pressure reducer valve or next to the water meter. This valve can shut off the supply of water all through the house and restrict the flow even if it is only slightly closed. Turn the valve to fully open. If it is frozen in position, put a few drops of lubricating oil around the valve stem and wear a work glove to turn the handle or, if necessary, turn it with the help of a pipe wrench. Test water pressure by opening multiple taps again. If the problem is resolved, it is likely that the cause was one of the valves.
Water leaks can cause low water pressure because not all the water is making its way to your faucet. This can result in very high-water bills; therefore, it is good idea to determine if they are the main cause of the problem of water pressure. Some of it is leaking through the cracked or damaged pipe.
Usually, when it is a leaky faucet, you can hear a dripping sound. This usually requires a simple repair.
The toilets where the water constantly passes, or leaks are the most common sources of leaks in a house. To do so:
Remove the lid of the toilet tank and place a few drops of food colouring or a dye tablet in the tank. Do not flush the toilet for at least an hour. If the coloured water has penetrated the bowl, your toilet has a leak. This is usually repaired by replacing the flush valve flapper or the filling mechanism.
A break in the service line between the meter and the residence.
To check if that is the problem, locate the meter box, remove the lid off and lift the protective cover. Read the meter and see if the leak indicator is turning. The indicator cannot register slow leaks, so if it does not move at the time you are taking the reading, this does not verify you do not have a leak. To make sure record the reading and then shut all taps and do not use the water. After two hours, take another reading on the meter. If the numbers have changed, you are losing water.
You should check the soil in the area that is outside of your house, where the supply pipe is connected to the local supply line. If the weather has been dry and the area around the connection is wet, there may be a leak at this point. See if there are puddles of water in the basement and close to the water facilities of the house. Contact the water supplier company or a plumber to solve these problems.
Overtime, pipes can experience mineral deposit build-ups and corrosion. There is a certain number of algae in water. It looks a little like fine sawdust; it can get more usual depending on the season. Sometimes, the water company works on their pipes, and rust or gravel gets into the hose and plugs up fixtures. Sometimes, the plastic pipe inside the water heater disintegrates, and pieces of plastic plug fixtures. Iron pipes plug with rust, rust breaks loose and plugs up aerators, valves and anywhere there is a restriction in the pipes. These build-ups clog taps and showerheads, preventing full water pressure. Try cleaning out the faucet heads and showerheads in your home to see if this alleviates the low water pressure problem. If this does not resolve the problem and you believe it is a mineral deposit build-up causing your low water pressure, then you may have to call a professional plumber to assess and correct the problem.